RCR Part 5: Data Management, Data Ownership and Lab Practices
Data management is an extremely important aspect of the overall research effort. The following material is adapted from the “ORI Introduction to the Responsible Conduct of Research”, Chapter 6 and “Making the right moves, A practical guide to scientific management for postdocs and new faculty” from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
Institutions and principal investigators have responsibilities and obligations regarding research funds and data collection. Institutions, as the recipient of research funds, own the data and have budgetary, compliance, and contractual obligations that remain even after a PI is no longer at the institution.
The methods of data collection used as well as detailed documentation of the data collection process are extremely important. Researchers must clearly communicate policy and expectations to incoming graduate students and post-docs. In addition, regular lab meetings help to ensure common understandings and expectations.
In general, all data collected at an institution is the property of the institution. It is useful to distinguish between grants and contracts:
- Data collected with grant funds remain under the control of the institution.
- Contracts typically require the researcher to deliver a product or service to the government or industry sponsor, and the product or service is then owned and controlled by the sponsor.
Data collection must be well-organized and detailed. The laboratory notebook (bound sequentially numbered pages, with signatures and dates) is often key to keeping daily records. Detailed records help:
- Establish good work practices;
- Teach the people in your lab;
- Meet contractual requirements;
- Avoid fraud;
- Defend patents.
To ensure the protection and cooperation of all involved, the following are recommended:
- Before data is collected all project personnel should clearly understand who owns the data, who has the right to publish, and what requirements or obligations are imposed on the researcher or the institution.
- When a PI leaves the institution, an agreement on the disposition of research records (and materials) should be negotiated between the researcher and the Department Chair or Dean to allow the transfer of research records.
- Whenever a graduate student or post-doc leaves the lab, a similar agreement should be negotiated between the PI and the graduate student or post-doc.
- Collaborative research agreements regarding data ownership and use should be agreed to (in writing) prior to the collection of the data. In general, each member of the team should have continued access to the data/materials (unless a prior agreement was negotiated).
Data Storage and Protection
Once data has been collected, it must be stored and protected to be of future use. Data storage must be done in such a way (in terms of completeness and organization) that results and conclusions can be clearly discerned from the data and materials that have been archived. The data and materials must be protected so that research findings can be confirmed and/or reanalyzed by others. If data and materials are not properly stored and protected they could significantly reduce the value of the research (or even render the research worthless).